14 Feb Bazan in the New World
This remarkable piece of research was done by Geraldine Creaghe Cuneo (1931-1997). The date it was written is not known for sure, perhaps ca. 1990.
Additional information came to light in 2019 from Arthur S. Bazan and Robert Bazan, first cousins, as well new research. This new information produces some discrepancies from the original text. However, they are not crucial, and I wanted to preserve Geraldine’s narrative as much as possible (SBC-2020). The new material is in italics in the text.
The new research has provided a great deal more information regarding the Bazan Brothers’ contribution to weaving in Nuevo Mexico, and I think it best to discuss this topic in a separate article. This will be under the “Family History tab” and “Bazan Brothers and Nuevo Mexico Weaving”.
- Geraldine Creaghe Cuneo, daughter of Gerald Francis Creaghe [1879-1941].
- Geraldine Francis Creaghe Cuneo was the granddaughter of Serapia Bazan Creaghe [1855-1936] and Saint George Creaghe [1852-1924] and daughter of Nancy McClain Creaghe (1904-1996) and Gerald Francis Creaghe (1879-1941).
- Spanish Archives, Santa Fe, New Mexico
- A History of New Mexico
- Spanish Land Grants in New Mexico
- Baptismal records of Archdiocese of Santa Fe
- Origins of New Mexico Families in the Spanish Colonial Period by Fray Angélico Chavéz, published by William Gannon, Santa Fe, New Mexico 1975.
- Slaney, Deborah C.. Wonders of the Weavers, The Albuquerque Museum, 2005.
To understand the proud Spanish heritage brought into our family by the marriage of my grandfather St. George Creaghe to my grandmother Serapia Bazan y Ortiz it was necessary to review the historical records that date back to the first Spanish Conquest and the Re-Conquest following the Pueblo revolt of 1680. Our maternal line through the Gutierrez, Baca and Ortiz families is much more ancient and deep rooted in the history of America than was our paternal line when the Bazan brothers carried their contract from the Viceroy of New Spain to Santa Fe.
The data concerning the pre-American immigration of Bazan to New Spain (later to become Mexico after the revolution of 1821 when New Spain broke away from the Crown of Spain and became the Republic of Mexico. [Incomplete sentence, not clear what is missing.}
Initially the research into the Bazan origins was confusing because of a later infusion of the Bazan line from Mexico. The relationship between these later arrivals and our own family is not established. But relationship is so distant that it is of no consequence to this report.
To establish dates and relationships to the maternal line of our ancestor, which will require a regression in dating of this report, we will begin with the first Bazan to come to New Mexico.
While our interest is focused on the New World, the Bazán family can be traced back to the 12th Century in Spain. The most prominent is Alvaro de Bazán (1526-1588), a very successful Admiral in the Spanish Navy. He was awarded the Marqués of Santa Cruz by King Phillip II of Spain. His home, Palacio del Marqués de Santa Cruz, is now a National Monument in Viso del Marqués, Spain.
It is not clear when a member or members of the Bazán family first appeared in Mexico, New Spain, but according to information provided by Robert Bazán, the Bazán family was in Mexico for at least four generations before moving to the northern province of Nuevo Mexico. They held positions of responsibility in the seat of government in Mexico City. At least some members of the family moved to Puebla, no more than eighty miles southeast of the city. There José Bazán y Lobato and Josefa Alvarez y Trujillo raised two sons – Ignacio Ricardo and Juan. Ignacio is believed to have born in Puebla in 1767 and baptized in Mexico City. Ignacio and his first wife, Doña Ygnacia Ledesma of Mexico City were also married in the capitol city. The marriage resulted in two sons, Francis Xavier in 1791 and José in 1795. Sometime after the birth of the second child, Ygnacia died.
IGNACIO RICARDO BAZAN (or Basán) ( born 1767 in Puebla, New Spain, died 1841 in Nuevo Mexico), a widower, and his brother Juan Bazán, single, made a contract with the Spanish government in Mexico City, September 3, 1805, to come to New Mexico to teach the craft of weaving. They had to live in Santa Fe and remain six years under the terms of the contract.
With Ignacio Ricardo Bazan came his two sons Francisco Xavier, fourteen, and Jose Manuel, ten. Nothing more is heard of the two sons or of Juan his brother. (The Bazan family that now lives in New Mexico and are our cousins say that they did not like the rigors of the frontier and the Indian problems and returned to Puebla, Mexico (then New Spain). It is felt that the later immigration of the Bazan name into Texas may have been the results of these Bazans. They will be related to us only through the paternal line, however, since our maternal line comes from the remarriage of Ignacio Ricardo.
In February 1807, Ignacio Ricardo Bazan asked to marry Juana Apolonia Gutierrez of Pajarito. She was the daughter of the richest man in New Mexico.(RB) This marriage ties our family to one of the oldest family lines in the New World as I will explain later. Of interest is a report from the Spanish Archives microfiche that states:
The report of Governor Chacon (then governor of the Villa de Santa Fe) to the Viceroy in Mexico City states that they had no master craftsmen or guilds in New Mexico and that the Viceroy should send skilled persons to help the local residents learn these skills.
Don Ignacio Ricardo Bazan (our ancestor) and Don Juan Bazan, who were certified master weavers and tradesmen of the same guild, came by contract from the Viceroy to live in Santa Fe where they would teach weaving trade to local youth. Looms and equipment, salaries, horses and a guide along with two sons of Ignacio Ricardo were to be funded by the general treasury of the army and the royal treasury.
The Bazans arrived in 1805 with some of their equipment. The looms, whole or in part, apparently came with them. But Don Ignacio billed the treasury for equipment constructed to teach weaving. Additionally, there was a bill for working over 5 pieces of copper for the Bazan’s use. Evidently the plan worked, as in 1809 the Alcaldes of Santa Fe reported the apprentices were producing without the maestro (our ancestor).
Pedro Bautista wrote in 1812: “A few years ago I saw introduced fine looms for cotton by an expert sent there by the government. He has taught many in very little time. Although I call it fine cloth, it is coarse in comparison with the fine fabrics we are accustomed to from China.”
Ignacio Ricardo Bazan remained in Santa Fe for six years. Juan returned to Mexico accompanied by Ignacio’s two sons by his first marriage to Ignacia Ledesma of Mexico City.
In February of 1807, Ignacio Ricardo asked to marry Juana Apolonia Gutierrez of Pajarito. In this application he stated that he was the son of Jose Bazan y Lobato and Josefa Alvarez y Trujillo (the y Lobato and y Trujillo denote the female line. This is reversed in the English version, it would be Jose Bazan and Josefa Alvarez). She (Juana Gutierrez) is referred to as espanola of Pajarito, daughter of Don Lorenzo Gutierrez, Capt. De Milicias Uranas, and Dona Maria Candelaria Garcia de Noriega. Groom had come from Mexico City, employed by Real Hacienda since September 3, 1805. Witnesses were Don Antonio Ortiz (38) and Don Jose de la Pena (27).
Ignacio and Juana Gutierrez had a son Joaquin Alejandro (Juan?) and a daughter Ignacia Juana Paula (born June 27, 1809) who married a Manuel Baca of Los Chavez. They had a child Juan Francisco baptized January 11, 1833.
The son, Joaquin Alejandro Bazan married Marie Luz Ortiz daughter of Antonio Ortiz and Juana Gertrudis Baca. Here a tad bit of sandal enters the family: From the Spanish Archives (nos. 85-86) came this tidbit:
1841 September 21, Santa Fe, Joaquin Alejandro Bazan of Pajarito (son of Don Ignacio Ricardo Bazan (deceased) and Dona Apolonia Gutierrez) and Maria Luz Ortiz, widow of Jose Alejandro Baca. Couple accused of being related in 2nd degree affinity through illicit copula, to be separated until matter is cleared up. Vol. II. N.M. Roots 978.9, C 512, V 2.
Apparently it was cleared up because these were my grandmother’s parents, Maria Luz Ortiz, my great grandmother was the daughter of Antonio Ortiz and Gertrudis Baca. Joaquin, a judge in Belen, New Mexico, died at the age of sixty-four in Los Pueblitos, on August 28, 1871, sometime after his wife’s death. Maria Luz, his wife and my great grandmother, is buried in Belen, New Mexico.
Joaquin and Maria Luz had 4 children that I can find records about. One reference to another female child is not clear at this time. They were Higinia (baptized Jan. 12, 1844), Joaquin, Serapia (my grandmother), and Jesus Maria Bazan (the father of my cousins here in Albuquerque. Joaquin and Serapia went to Arizona where she married St. George Creaghe, an Irish immigrant. Arizona historical records reveal that in 1880 Serapia and St. George Creaghe were living in Springerville, Arizona, and had four children, Anna, Gerlad Frances, Richard and _____________________ (here the records leave a blank). Please refer to “The Creaghe Name in the United States” by James R. Corning, Nov. 4, 1987.
Her younger brother Jesus Maria Bazan married Refugio Giddings, daughter of James Giddings of Albuquerque, who was the first secretary to the Territorial Senate under the U.S. Government in Santa Fe. He was also the first court clerk in the U.S. District Court in Santa Fe.
Joaquin A. Bazan, his son and father of the Bazan family here in Albuquerque, is recorded by obituary in the Albuquerque Tribune, 1971.
“Joaquin A. Bazan carried on the talents of his forefathers. He not only dealt in early New Mexico Politics, as did one of his ancestors, but was a master craftsman and builder as well.
Born 89 years ago and raised on a ranch near Puerto de Luna, Mr. Bazan died Wednesday after a short illness. For more than 20 years Mr. Bazan, as a self-employed building contractor, built some of the first bridges and paved roads in New Mexico. Perhaps most notable monument to his talents is the rock spire topped by a wagon wheel along I-25 between Albuquerque and Santa Fe. Survivors are listed as wife, Mrs. Guadalupe Bazan, four children Juaquin (Albuquerque), Herbert (Cleveland), Isaura (Albuquerque) and Rose Marie Bazan Crowe (Australia 1986).
These are our cousins in this area.
The Female Lines
To understand the female line of Serapia Creaghe y Bazan we must understand the locations and a bit of the History of New Mexico. There was continual influx of the Spanish into the area from the early 1600’s, but the revolt of the Pueblo Indians led by Pope of the Taos people in 1680 drove the Spanish back to El Paso del Norte. The early Spaniards were forced to settle near the Indian Pueblo people for protection against the Navajo, Apache and Comanche. One such pueblo was that of Isleta, just south of Albuquerque. Here the Franciscans established a mission and it was the last stop after the Spanish left Santa Fe in 1680. Upon their Reconquest in 1693, they found the Pueblo and mission burned and abandoned. The Spanish sought the Isletas out from the other tribes where they had been captured or had retreated following the 1680 revolt. The Pueblo of Isleta was reestablished and the mission rebuilt in 1718. Clemente Gutierrez, our earliest recorded ancestor, was a prominent supporter of this mission. Isleta still stands today, bordering the south valley of Albuquerque. It is still an Indian pueblo. Just to the north is the village of Los Padillas and it in turn joins the area of the old Pajarito land grant. I live in one of the old historic houses that is the oldest standing structure from the early days. The Pajarito land grant is dated as 1699 in Spanish and Indian Land Grants of New Mexico, Cline, U.S. Dept. of Justice. It is a confirmed grant, but the original grant in this case has been lost. The Pajarito tract was registered by one Miguel Garcia de la Ribas [sic]. In 1733, Jose Francisco Montoya (presumably the grantee’s heir) brought suit against Baltazar Romero involving boundaries of the Pajarito tract. The Court of Private Land Claims confirmed the Pajarito grant to Tomas C. Gutierrez et al, of 28,724 acres and rejected 16,275. Little else is known about the grant, but it is one of the locations that relates strongly to the female line of our grandmother.
One of the most ironic occurrences happened when I began research on this aspect of the genealogy of our Hispanic lines. There was continual reference to Pajarito, Los Padillas and areas in which I live in the valley south of Albuquerque. I found out that the above mentioned Pajarito land grant, which later was recorded as belonging to Philip [? James] Hubbell via a marriage to a Gutierrez in 1846 had in fact been in the Gutierrez family for many years. There is some relationship of the Hubbell family to our grandmother, and thus the trading relationship to Lorenzo and possibly the reason that grandmother chose to accompany her brother to Arizona where she met Grandfather Creaghe. Lorenzo Hubbell was a well-known Indian trader and founded the Hubbell Trading Co. He was also related to the Bacas and Gutierrez families. The Bazans had been instrumental in teaching the Chimayo weaving to the Indians and thus the two families also became bound by the Indian trade.
Another coincidence that is amazing is the fact that the property that Alan and Geraldine Cuneo and daughter Diana own in Albuquerque at one time had a church or chapel attached to the north side of the house and a graveyard for this church is now the site of a horse paddock. The previous owners, Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd Jolly, documented the history of the house and researched in detail its history, gathering information from members of the Hubbell family, now long deceased. Beneath the ground on Geraldine’s property lay the remains of many ancestors. The chapel is long gone, replaced by a newer one south and west less than a quarter mile away. It is fun to think that some of my great grandmothers once walked through the same rooms that now shelter another generation. The graves have disappeared, but the previous owner, Jean Jolly, stated that at the time they purchased the house the graves were in evidence and were depressed. They respected the sanctity and carefully leveled the area.
The first lady to address is the lady who married Ignacio Ricardo Bazan. Her name was Juana Apolonia Gutierrez. She was the daughter of Lorenzo Gutierrez and Candelaria Garcia. Lorenzo was the son of Clemente Gutierrez and Apolonia Baca. These two persons were married in 1755.
Clemente Gutierrez, a native of Spain and the son of Pedro Gutierrez and Maria Garcia. In 1768 he bought the Ranco de Los Padillas. He made his last will in 1789 at San Isidro de Pajarito, declaring he was from Aragon. Besides his wife he names his heirs of his wealthy estate. Lorenzo, Lorenza (wife of Francisco Antonio Garcia), Maria Manuela de la Soledad (married to Mariano de la Pena), and two minors, Maria Luisa and Juana (another baby died in infancy).
The Garcia de Noriega part of our ancestry are descendants of Alonzo Garcia de Noriega I. After the Reconquest, some remained at Guadalupe del Paso (El Paso) to prosper and generations later to intermarry with the New Mexico families. But the majority returned with Vargas and the Reconquest in 1693. I did not track Candelaria’s family but know that this is her line.
The Baca family is actually Vaca, but already in the 17th Century Baca had come into common usage and was accepted spelling after the Reconquest. Although it was derived from Cabeza de Vaca, a title and name received by a Spanish hero in the year 1212, the full name was never once used by this New Mexico family over two centuries.
For those who are interested, the Ortiz line descends from Nicolos Ortiz III via Antonio Jose Ortiz and Gertrudis Paez Hurtado. This line injected the Maria Luz name that eventually gets tagged on to one of the grandmothers.
I wouldn’t begin to touch the Baca family. It is so vast and relates to more than a hundred thousand New Mexicans. But through these lines our family is probably related to every other old Hispanic family in New Mexico.
For the information of those who were interested in the Pajarito land grant – The original grant was registered by Miguel Garcia de la Ribas in 1733. It eventually was handed down to Clemente Gutierrez and finally the Baca name was added. It passed out of Spanish hands when James Hubbell married the Gutierrez heiress in 1846. He spotted this bit of wealth when he came through in 1845 with Kearny’s Army. The Hubbells still own the old house on Isleta and Geraldine Cuneo and husband Alan own the oldest known house on Appleton. One is declared a historic sight and the Cuneos are considering entering their home into the historical record. This will result in excessive control by the State of New Mexico Historical Society and must be carefully considered before applying. There is currently a Rubi family living in the area and they own Rubi Metals. I have not spoken with them of a possible relationship, as I am told they were descendants of the Ruvi mentioned below. There are still Hubbells living in the area and they are not particularly interested in acquiring more relatives, my attempts to contact them were quickly and firmly rejected.
Of particular interest to me was an old census that told of individuals living in the area about 1800. Our relationship is explained as it applies to me and all of my first cousins, Charles Corning, Jim Corning, [Bill Corning], Larry Creaghe, Jack Creaghe, Creaghe Gordon, Helen Gordon Moore, and George Creaghe:
- Haciendo de Pajarito
- Don Manuel Ruvi and wife Dona Juana Gutierrez (my great, great, great aunt)
- Don Mariano de la Pena and his wife Dona Maria Soledad Gutierrez (daughter of Clemente G. and my great aunt – three times removed)
- His daughter Mariana Pena
- His son Lorenzo Pena
- His son Rafeal de la Pena
- His son Bartolome Pena
- His sister in law Rosa Gutierrez
- Don Lorenzo Gutierrez (Son of Clemente)
- Mother Dona Apolonia Baca (my grandmother 4 times removed)
- His wife Dona Candelaria Garcia (my grandmother 3 times removed)
- Their children Jose, Matias, Juan Jose, Juana Apolonia (my grandmother 2 times removed)
- His nieces: Dolores Garcia, Francisca de la Pena
- His servants Maria Savina, Josefa and Rosalia
This should give us all enough relatives to last a lifetime. God bless and hope all of you enjoyed this bit of history!
Locations of the Villages of Pajarito, Los Padillas and Isleta Indian Pueblo lay on the west side of the Rio Grande river south of Albuquerque. They are the villages that served the old Pajarito and Los Padillas Land grants. The mission at Isleta Pueblo was only off importance because of the early ancestor Clemente Gutierrez served on its council (Also Ignacio and Juana Apolonia Gutierrez were married there in 1807). For more information refer to Missions of New Mexico.
Usner, Don J., Sabino’s Map, Museum of New Mexico Press, 1995.
Bazan, Arthur – communications, 2019.
Bazan, Robert – communications, 2019.
Genealogy Book, Helen Gordon Moore, 1997
Slaney, Deborah, Wonders of the Weavers, Albuquerque Museum, 2005.